Gurmukhi Alphabet


The Gurmukhi alphabet is used to write in the Punjabi language spoken in northwestern India, particularly in the Punjab region and in Eastern Pakistan.

This alphabet is considered an abugida. It was created in the XIV century by the second Sikh guru called Angad.The old Punjabi word gurmukhi means “out of the guru´s mouth.”

Gurmukhi is a phonetic script in which each character represents a syllable. It is written from left to right. The alphabet consists of 35 consonants and 10 vowels, along with various diacritical marks to modify the sounds.

The Gurmukhi script has distinct characters that are different from other Indian scripts like  Devanagari 0915–0945 . It includes unique vowel signs, nasalization marks, and additional consonant sounds specific to Punjabi.