Punctuation Marks

Quantity of characters: 94

Punctuation marks are the symbols of written language that are used for a more accurate reproduction of spoken language to the letter. They can denote intonation, indicate the connection between words and highlight parts of the text.

The list of punctuation marks:

Classification of punctuation marks by purpose:

  • Separation of the completed meaning of fragments of the texts – sentences, paragraphs. They also reflect intonation.
  • Designation of the relationship between parts of the same sentence.
  • Selection of quotes.
  • Designation of emotional attitude to the different parts of one sentence — words and phrases.
  • Marking of missing text fragments.
  • Symbols, which mean abbreviations of words.

In ancient times punctuation marks were almost never used. Then the word “punctuation” was related to the oratory. The founders of the modern system were the grammars who lived in Alexandria in the III – I centuries BC (Aristophanes of Byzantium, Dionysius Thrax, Aristarchus). At first the full stop was only used, and it was placed on top, below and in the middle of the line. A couple of centuries later a few more signs appeared and in the second century Nikanor had already eight signs. However, no specific rules were invented, each author put punctuation marks as he wanted. It lasted until the fifteenth century, when the printer Aldus Manuzio standardized punctuation. Since then the number of punctuation marks and the rules of their use have not changed dramatically.

Punctuation marks are not part of the alphabets. In consequence of the spread of European punctuation in the XX century they are in general similar to many modern world writings — Indian, Jewish, Arabic, Latin and Cyrillic.

It should be kept in mind that with time graphic representation of signs and their meaning changed. This page presents not only modern, but also historical images. In addition, some marks can be used as diacritic ones (modify or complement the letter). In this case they do not refer to punctuation marks.

HTML Entities for Punctuation Marks, Code Table

Symbol HTML-code CSS Code Unicode Entity Name
! Exclamation Mark
# Number Sign
% Percent Sign
& Ampersand
( Left Parenthesis
) Right Parenthesis
* Asterisk
, Comma
. Full Stop
/ Solidus
: Colon
; Semicolon
? Question Mark
[ Left Square Bracket
\ Reverse Solidus
] Right Square Bracket
^ Circumflex Accent
_ Low Line
` Grave Accent
{ Left Curly Bracket
| Vertical Line
} Right Curly Bracket
~ Tilde
ˆ Modifier Letter Circumflex Accent
  No-Break Space
En Space
Em Space
Thin Space
Zero Width Non-Joiner
Zero Width Joiner
Left-To-Right Mark
Right-To-Left Mark
¡ Inverted Exclamation Mark
¦ Broken Bar
§ Section Sign
¨ Diaeresis
ª Feminine Ordinal Indicator
¬ Not Sign
­ Soft Hyphen
¯ Macron
² Superscript Two
³ Superscript Three
´ Acute Accent
µ Micro Sign
Pilcrow Sign
· Middle Dot
¸ Cedilla
¹ Superscript One
º Masculine Ordinal Indicator
¿ Inverted Question Mark
En Dash
Em Dash
Horizontal Bar
Double Vertical Line
Double Dagger
Two Dot Leader
Horizontal Ellipsis
Per Mille Sign
Per Ten Thousand Sign
Double Prime
Triple Prime
Reversed Prime
Caret Insertion Point
Hyphen Bullet
Fraction Slash
Reversed Semicolon
Quadruple Prime

HTML Entities for Quotation Marks, Code Table

Symbol HTML-code CSS Code Unicode Entity Name
" Quotation Mark
' Apostrophe
« Left-Pointing Double Angle Quotation Mark
» Right-Pointing Double Angle Quotation Mark
Left Single Quotation Mark
Right Single Quotation Mark
Single Low-9 Quotation Mark
Left Double Quotation Mark
Right Double Quotation Mark
Double Low-9 Quotation Mark
Single Left-Pointing Angle Quotation Mark
Single Right-Pointing Angle Quotation Mark